Introduction of intestinal obstruction:
An obstruction of the large intestine (gross intestine) is a blockage that prevents gases or feces from passing through the body. An intestinal blockage can occur in any part of the large intestine.
Obstruction of the large intestine can block all or part of the intestine. A blocked intestine can rupture, causing a life-threatening infection.
The large intestine plays a vital role in removing waste from the body. Liquid food residues from the small intestine go to the large intestine, where they become solid.
Large bowel obstructions account for about 20% of all intestinal blockages. As obstructions of the small intestine are more common.
Symptoms of intestinal obstruction
Intestinal obstruction causes a wide range of symptoms, including:
• abdominal pain.
• decreased appetite.
• inability to pass gas or feces.
• abdominal cramps.
• abdominal swelling.
Some symptoms may depend on the location and duration of the obstruction. For example, vomiting is an early sign of obstruction of the small intestine. Vomiting can also occur with an obstruction of the large intestine if it occurs while walking.
A partial obstruction can result in diarrhea, while a complete obstruction can make it impossible to pass gas or feces.
Intestinal obstruction can also cause serious infection and inflammation of the abdominal cavity, known as peritonitis. This occurs when a part of your intestine ruptures. The issue leads to fever and increased abdominal pain. This condition is a life-threatening emergency that requires surgery.
Causes of intestinal obstruction:
An obstruction can be partial, or it can improve without surgery. A complete blockage is more likely than accurate intestinal surgery.
Mechanical obstructions are when something physically blocks your intestine. No small intestine can be due to:
• Adherences, which are made of fibrous tissue that can develop after any abdominal or pelvic surgery or after severe inflammation.
• volvulus, or twisting of the intestines
• intussusception, a “telescope”, or push, of a segment of the intestine for the next section
• malformations of the intestine, usually in new-borns, but can also occur in children and adolescents
• tumor in the small intestine
• Gallstones, which rarely cause obstructions.
• swallowed objects, especially in children
• hernias, which involve a part of the intestine, squeezing the
• adhesions of pelvic infections or surgeries.
• Colorectal cancer.
• Meconium tampon in newborns (meconium is the first passage of the baby in feces.)
• volvulus and intussusception.
• diverticulitis, an inflammation or infection of the bulging sacs of the intestine.
• stenosis, a non-colon stricture caused by scarring or inflammation.
Your large and small intestines normally function in a moving coordinate system. If something breaks these coordinate contractures, it can cause a functional intestinal obstruction.
It is generally known as a non-mechanical obstruction. It is for a temporary condition and is called ileus. The so-called pseudo-obstruction will become chronic or long-term.
• abdominal or pelvic surgery.
• infections, such as gastroenteritis or appendicitis.
• some medications, including opioid pain relievers.
• electrolyte imbalances.
A pseudo-intestinal obstruction can be caused by:
• Parkinson’s disease multiple sclerosis, and other nervous and muscular.
• Hirschsprung’s disease is a disorder that does not have a lack of nerves in sections of the large intestine
• disorders that cause nerve damage, such as diabetes mellitus.
• hypothyroidism or hypoactive thyroid gland.
Diagnosis of intestinal obstruction:
Tests and procedures used to diagnose intestinal obstruction include:
• Physical examination. Your doctor will ask about your medical history and your symptoms. He or she will also undergo a physical exam to assess your situation. The doctor may suspect intestinal obstruction if the abdomen is swollen or tender or if there is a nodule in the abdomen.
• Radio X. To confirm a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, your doctor may recommend an abdominal x-ray. However, some intestinal obstructions cannot be seen using standard X-rays.
• Computed tomography (CT). A computed tomography scan combines a series of X-ray images taken at different angles to produce cross-sectional images. These images are more detailed than a standard radiograph and are more likely to show an intestinal obstruction.
• Ultrasound. When an intestinal obstruction occurs in children, ultrasonography is usually the preferred type of image. In youngsters with intussusception, an ultra-sound will usually represent the intestine rolled up inside the intestine.
- barium enema. A barium enema allows enhanced images of the colon. It can be useful for certain suspected causes of obstruction. During the procedure, the doctor will insert your non-colon liquid barium through the challenge. For intussusception in children, a water or barium enema can really solve the problem most of the time, and no additional treatment is necessary.
Treatment of intestinal obstruction:
You will probably need to go to the hospital for treatment. Or your doctor will administer the medications and fluids through a vein (intravenous or intravenous). They can also pass a fine tube through the nose and enter the stomach. it is called a nasogastric tube (NG). He releases fluids and gases to relieve his symptoms.
Mostly two partial blockades improve on their own. Or your doctor may put you on a special diet that is easier on your intestines.
Water or fluid enemas can help clear blockages by increasing pressure within your intestines.
A small tube called a stent is a safe option for people who are too talented for surgery. Your doctor or place in your intestine forces the intestine to open. Some people may not need anything more than a stent. Others may require surgery after they become present.
Surgery is usually the best treatment for a totally blocked intestine when your intestine is damaged. Your doctor can treat the cause of the obstruction or remove the blocked area and any damaged tissue.
If surgery is required, a colostomy or ileostomy may be required. You may have your doctor remove the damaged part of the intestine, sewing it up or leaving it in an opening in the skin. through this opening and goes to a disposable sack. In some cases, your intestines can be repositioned after you feel better.