Dysmenorrhea Introduction :
Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) are throbbing or cramping pains within the lower abdomen. many females have menstrual cramps just before and during their menstrual periods. for a few women, the discomfort is simply annoying.
For others, menstrual cramps are often severe enough to interfere with daily activities for a few days a month. Treating the cause is vital to reducing pain. Menstrual cramps that aren’t caused by another condition tend to lessen with age and usually improve after delivery.
Causes of dysmenorrhea:
It’s not always possible to identify the cause of painful menstrual periods. Some people are simply at a higher risk of having painful periods. These risks include:
•people under 20 years of age.
• Have a family history of painful periods.
- Have heavy bleeding with periods.
- Never had a child.
- have irregular periods.
• females who reach puberty before the age of 11. A hormone called prostaglandin activates the muscles of the uterus that expel the lining. These contractions can cause pain and swelling. the extent of prostaglandin increases just before menstruation begins. Painful menstrual periods also can be the result of an underlying medical condition, such as • PMS may be a common condition caused by hormonal changes in the body that occur 1 to 2 weeks before menstruation begins.
Symptoms of dysmenorrhea :
The symptoms usually get away after the bleeding starts.
• Endometriosis. this is often a painful medical condition in which cells from the lining of the uterus grow in other parts of the body, usually within the fallopian tubes, ovaries, or the tissue lining the pelvis.
• Fibroids within the uterus. Fibroids are noncancerous growths that will press on the uterus or cause abnormal menstruation and pain, although they often cause no symptoms.
• Pelvic disease (PID). PID is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries, often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria that causes inflammation of the reproductive organs and pain.
• Adenomyosis. this is often a rare condition in which the uterine lining grows into the muscular wall of the uterus, causing swelling, pressure, and pain. It also can cause longer or heavier periods.
• Cervical stenosis. Cervical stenosis may be a rare condition in which the cervix is so small or narrow that it slows down the menstrual flow, causing increased pressure inside the uterus that results in pain.
Symptoms of menstrual cramps include:
• Stabbing or cramping pain within the lower abdomen can be severe
• Pain that starts 1 to 3 days before your period, peaks 24 hours after the beginning of your period, and goes away in 2 to three days
• Pain radiating to the lower back and thighs Some women also have:
• Loose stools
• Dizziness When to see a doctor See your health care provider if:
• Menstrual cramps disrupt your life every month
• Your symptoms get progressively worse • Started having severe menstrual cramps after age 25
Treatment of dysmenorrhea:
If you have mild menstrual cramps, take aspirin or another pain reliever, like acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen. For best relief, take these medications as soon as bleeding or cramping begins. Heat also can help. Put a hot pad or hot water bottle on your lower back or belly. A warm bath also can provide some relief. Other lifestyle changes which will help:
• Rest when you need it.
• Avoid foods with caffeine and salt.
• Avoid tobacco and alcohol.
• Massages the lower back and abdomen.
• Take dietary supplements.
• attempt to control your stress.
• Try acupuncture or acupressure.
• Ask your doctor about herbal medicines. Women who exercise regularly often have less period pain. to assist prevent cramps, make exercise an element of your weekly routine. If these steps aren’t enough, let your doctor know. they’ll prescribe medications such as:
• Ibuprofen (a higher dose than is available without a prescription) or other strong pain relievers • Oral contraceptives (women who take birth control pills have less period pain).