Introduction of ascites:

Ascites occur when excess fluid accumulates within the stomach (abdomen). This disease is common in people with cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver. A sheet of tissue called the peritoneum covers the abdominal organs, including the stomach, intestines, liver, and kidneys. The peritoneum has two layers. Ascites occur when fluid builds up between the 2  parts.

Factors causing ascites:

Having conditions that cause cirrhosis puts you at a better risk of developing ascites. These include:

• Non-alcoholic liver disease.

•  hepatitis B.

•  hepatitis C.

• Alcohol use problem.

• Autoimmune hepatitis.

• Genetic liver diseases like hemochromatosis,  hepatolenticular degeneration, and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

Other conditions  which can cause ascites to include:

• Congestive coronary failure • Cancers of the abdominal and pelvic regions.

Signs and symptoms of ascites:

Ascites are usually accompanied by a feeling of fullness, bloating, and weight gain. Other common symptoms include:

• Shortness of breath.

• Nausea.

• Swelling of the feet and ankles.

• lack of food.

• vomiting.

• Acidity.

• Inability to eat.

• Getting cold.

• hernia. If you’ve got a combination of these symptoms, see your doctor. If you’ve got ascites,  it’s usually a sign of liver failure. It occurs more often with cirrhosis.

Causes of ascites:

Ascites occur when pressure builds up within the veins of your liver and it doesn’t work the way it should. These two problems are usually caused by another disease: cirrhosis, heart or renal failure, cancer, or infection.

The pressure blocks blood flow to the liver. Over time, this prevents your kidneys from removing excess salt from your body. This, in turn, causes excess water.

Ascites may be hazardous.

Any disease that causes liver damage or scarring can cause you to be more likely to have ascites. Common risk factors for ascites include:

• Liver cirrhosis (scarring) due to:

• Viral infections  like  hepatitis B or hepatitis C

• Drinking alcohol

• Obesity

• Viral infections  like  hepatitis B or hepatitis C

• Drinking alcohol

• Cancer  within the  abdominal organs

•  insufficiency

• Congestive  coronary failure Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

Complications  associated with paracentesis:


• electrolyte imbalance.

• Intestinal inflammation.

• Bleeding.

• Leakage through the stomach wall.

• Kidney damage.

Treatment of ascites:

Treatment for ascites will depend upon the cause of the condition.

If you’ve got an infection or a viral infection, your doctor will treat the cause and provides you with some treatment to reduce the symptoms.

Diuretics are commonly wont to treat ascites and are effective for many people with the condition. These drugs increase the quantity of salt and water that leaves the body, which reduces the pressure within the arteries surrounding the liver. While taking diuretics, your doctor might want to monitor your blood chemistry.  you’ll want to limit your alcohol intake (if you drink alcohol) and your salt intake.


In this procedure, the doctor uses an extended, thin needle to get rid of excess fluid from your stomach. They insert the needle into the skin and into the abdomen. You may need this if you have severe or recurrent ascites, or if symptoms don’t improve with diuretics.


In some cases, the surgeon may place a permanent tube, called a shunt,  within the body. It regulates blood flow to the liver and reduces the necessity for fluid retention. A shunt could also be appropriate if diuretics do not help.

Your doctor may recommend a liver transplant if your ascites don’t respond to treatment and you have serious liver disease. If the ascites are the result of heart failure,  you’ll also need surgery.

Prevention and control of ascites:

It is not always possible to prevent ascites or their causes.

However, there are ways to scale back the risk of other complications,  like cirrhosis,  heart condition, peritoneal infections, and non-alcoholic liver disease.

• follow a diet rich in fresh fruit and vegetables and low in added fat and salt.

• eat raw foods  rather than  highly processed foods

• check your  weight

• exercise regularly

• follow hepatitis prevention guidelines,  like asking your doctor about the Hepatitis B vaccine and using a condom during sex to reduce the risk of infection.

• reduce alcohol consumption

•  take care  to avoid fish, fish, fish, or raw or undercooked meat  to scale back  the risk of infection

• reduce  the quantity  of salt in your diet

• reduce the consumption of fats and proteins

• avoid drinking alcohol

Your doctor can advise you on the steps that best fit your condition.

Complications of ascites:

Complications  related to  ascites include:

• stomach ache.

• pleural effusion, or “fluid on the lungs,”  which may cause difficulty breathing.

• hernias,  like  inguinal hernias.

• viral infections,  like viral hepatitis (SBP).

• hepatorenal syndrome, a rare sort of progressive kidney disease.

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