What is Anxiety disorder?
Anxiety disorder is the Feeling of anxiety and fears up to an extent that a person’s social, personal and Anxiety disorders are a collection of mental disorders attributed to significant and irresistible occupational functions are significantly afflicted.
SYMPTOMS OF ANXIETY
- Difficulty in concentrating.
- Easy fatigability.
- Increased worrying.
- Increased heartbeats.
- Chest pain.
- Abdominal pain.
- Factors causing anxiety disorders may include genetic factors, environmental factors and psychological factors.
- The time of usual onset of anxiety disorders is 15 years to 35 years. And can last up to 6 months once commenced.
- Its complications include depression, trouble sleeping, poor lifestyle or even suicide.
- Child abuse, poverty and family history are the risk factors.
- It is usually diagnosed by psychological assessments.
- It may mimic other diseases such as hyperthyroidism, heart diseases, alcohol, cannabis, caffeine use and even with withdrawal from certain drugs.
In clinical usage anxiety and fear differs from each other. Both are unpleasant emotional states but in anxiety, the triggering cause is unknown whereas in fear a well-known triggering factor is responsible
TYPES OF ANXIETY DISORDERS
- Generalized anxiety disorders
- Specific phobia.
- Social anxiety disorder.
- Separation anxiety disorder.
- Agoraphobia panic disorder.
- Selective mutism
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
- GAD is a common disorder characterized by persistent and long-lasting anxiety, unfocused on any one object or situation.
- It commonly affects elderly peoples
- Its symptoms may include restlessness, fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances, lack of concentration and muscle tension.
- Its diagnosis can be made when a person is extremely worried about his day-to-day problems for more than six months.
- But before its diagnosis has been made, physicians should eliminate drug-induced anxiety and other related medical causes.
- Around the globe between 5% and 12% of the population have specific phobias.
- In these phobias, fear and anxiety are provoked by a specific stimulus or situation.
- The most common phobias are blood, water, flying, tunnels, and highway driving.
- People with specific phobias always try their best to avoid the situation. they are often aware of the fact that their fear is very high in its intensity than the actual danger.
- Panic attacks are of short time duration but more intense in nature and are often characterized by shaking, confusion, trembling, nausea, dizziness and difficulty breathing.
- Panic attacks can be prompted by general fear, stress, irrational thoughts or even with exercise.
- It can be prevented by avoiding the triggering factor.
It is a specific type of anxiety in which a person feels completely helpless. And it is worsened by the fear of the onset of a panic attack.
SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER
- It is extreme fear and avoidance of public exposure or social interaction.
- On average 7% of all American adults have social phobia and more than 75% of the population may experience their first attack during childhood.
- It often determines specific physical symptoms such as sweating, blushing, rapid heartbeat and difficulty in speaking.
- Children may also face social anxiety disorders but the way of its presentation differs between adults and teenagers.
- They may experience difficulty in sleep, disturbed behaviour in class, difficulty in understanding information and irregular class perception.
Social physique anxiety is a sub-type of social anxiety which can mostly be seen in adolescent females and is characterized by excessive concern over the evaluation of self-body as compared to others.
POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
- It approximately affects 3.5% of the U.S population per year.
Anxiety results due to a traumatic experience PTSA is mainly a by-product of natural disasters, combat, bullying, rape, child abuse, hostage, or even a serious accident.
SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER
It is a type of anxiety characterized by a phobia of being separated from a special person or place, mainly seen in children and is a developing milestone in babies. These phenomena can only be termed as anxiety when this separation feeling is excessive or inappropriate
This mental disorder mainly contains two elements.
- OBSESSION… persistent distressing and intrusive thoughts.
- COMPULSION…strong urges to repeatedly perform a specific act.
These acts are not a by-product of any drug or physical disorder.
These persons are always in a state of dilemma.
They know these symptoms are placebo hence they continuously struggle against their thoughts and actions.
The reason behind OCD is not confirmed yet, but in some cases, genetic, cognitive, behavioural and neurobiological factors may be involved.
It is a disorder in which a person can speak normally in daily routines, but he can’t speak in specific situations or to a specific person.
It commonly co-exists with social anxiety and shyness. Before making a diagnosis for a person having selective mutism, the doctor may perform some tests to eliminate its differential diagnosis, which includes the child’s hearing problems, movements associated with the jaw, and tongue and with child’s ability to understand things when others are speaking to him.
The differential diagnosis plays a vital role in a proper diagnosis of anxiety disorders because for its diagnosis there are no biomarkers or laboratory tests are present. And its diagnosis is mainly done by its symptom, trigger factors and personal history
Anxiety disorders can be prevented by the use of,
- Cognitive behavioural therapy.
- Lifestyle changes.
- Lifestyle changes… include daily regular exercise, regularization of sleep patterns and stopping smoking and caffeine intake.
- Psychotherapy is the first line of treatment. Also called cognitive behavioural therapy. Mindfulness-based programs, regular meditation.
Mediations…As a medical prescription is concerned, the first drug of choice by medical professionals are SSRIs or SNRIs… The second line of treatment includes buspirone and benzodiazepines including diazepam and clonazepam are also effective.